Sunday, December 18, 2011

the difference between DDL, DML and DCL commands?

Data Definition Language (DDL)
statements are used to define the database
structure or schema. Some examples:
CREATE - to create objects in the database
ALTER - alters the structure of the database
DROP - delete objects from the database
TRUNCATE - remove all records from a table, including all spaces
allocated for the records are removed
COMMENT - add comments to the data dictionary
RENAME - rename an object
Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements are used for managing data
within schema objects. Some examples:
SELECT - retrieve data from the a database
INSERT - insert data into a table
UPDATE - updates existing data within a table
DELETE - deletes all records from a table, the space for the records
MERGE - UPSERT operation (insert or update)
CALL - call a PL/SQL or Java subprogram
EXPLAIN PLAN - explain access path to data
LOCK TABLE - control concurrency
Data Control Language (DCL)
statements. Some examples:
GRANT - gives user's access privileges to database
REVOKE - withdraw access privileges given with the GRANT command
Transaction Control (TCL) statements are used to manage the changes made by
DML statements. It allows statements to be grouped together into logical
COMMIT - save work done
SAVEPOINT - identify a point in a transaction to which you can later roll
ROLLBACK - restore database to original since the last COMMIT
SET TRANSACTION - Change transaction options like isolation level and
what rollback segment to use

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